What is periodontics?
Periodontics is the dentistry specialty in charge of diagnosing, treating, and preventing the diseases that affect the tissues that support the tooth (gums, bone, and periodontal ligament).
Although these structures generally do not produce any painful symptoms, gum conditions can cause extensive damages, such as bone and tooth loss.
Therefore, it is essential to maintain healthy gums with the aid of professional periodontal treatments and at-home care, such as using a good brushing technique and flossing daily.
Some of the most common periodontal procedures are teeth cleanings and scaling and root planning.
They allow for complete removal of the tartar responsible for periodontal disease and gums bleeding. However, periodontics is also responsible for performing surgical procedures in the gums, such as frenectomy and gingivoplasty.
Periodontal diseases are all those conditions that affect the periodontium. Usually, the damage begins at the gums and then migrates to the bone and ligament. The most common periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis.
Its principal characteristics include symptoms such as:
- Gums bleeding, especially during teeth brushing.
- Gums color changes from light pink to bright red.
- Tooth loosening.
- Development of periodontal pockets (pathological deepening of the sulcus located between the tooth and the gums).
Periodontal disease causes
There are several causes for periodontal diseases, such as hormonal changes. However, the most common cause is dental calculus, commonly referred to as tartar.
After eating, a soft, semi-transparent film forms around the teeth. This film is called dental biofilm, and it is made from different elements such as proteins and bacteria.
The biofilm can absorb some minerals in the saliva when it is not removed correctly, hardening and transforming into dental calculus.
This solid plaque adheres hardly to the tooth surface, especially the one located close to the gums. This causes an inflammatory reaction, triggering the process of periodontal disease.
What is gingivitis?
It is the initial stage of periodontal disease. It characterizes by gums inflammation, usually painless and capable of causing bleeding during brushing.
On the other hand, gingivitis can be localized at a specific zone or generalized, affecting several gum areas.
Finally, if it is not treated on time, it can evolve into periodontitis.
What is periodontitis?
It is the chronic stage of periodontal disease. During this phase, bacteria migrate towards the gingival sulcus, the space between the tooth and the gum, and whose base is delimited by the periodontal ligament.
Later, bacteria attack and destroy the bone and periodontal ligament, resulting in mobility and, eventually, tooth loss. As the disease heals, the ligament is restored to normality. However, the lost bone cannot grow back, and a bone graft is required to fix the issue.
Removing the tartar through a dental cleaning is enough to heal the gums. Luckily, dentists possess specialized instruments that allow them to remove the tartar, even when it is hidden under the gum.
These instruments have sharp edges and tips that help separate it from the tooth. Some work by vibration, managing to remove tartar safely and effectively.
Don’t ignore your gums’ bleeding even if it doesn’t hurt. Make an appointment, and we’ll take care of keeping your gums healthy.